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Robert 
Clive
1725 - 1774


Robert 
Clive
, " snip...Mrs Gaskell, author of "Cranford" and other stories, was married at the Parish Church, Knutsford, on August 30th, 1832, her husband, Rev William Gaskell, being the minister of the Cross Street Chapel, Manchester. Lord Clive's (the conqueror of India) mother was a Gaskell, and as a boy spent part of his holidays at Sandle Bridge and Mobberley. At Sandle Bridge (it is said) he used to terrify the old people by jumping from the ball of one stone gatepost across to the other. On one occasion, either at Sandle Bridge or at Mobberley, along with others, he attempted to stop up the mill brook with stones, etc., but the plot was discovered in time. It is also related that in order that he should not be thwarted in his deseigns, he stretched his whole length across the brook so as to get a better foundation for a second projected dam. He received the earliest portion of his education at a school adjoining Long's Chapel at Allestock, and report says that General Wolfe was one of his schoolfellows there." Educ. Grammar School, Market Drayton, Merchant Taylor's, etc. Governor Fort St. George from 21 Aug. 1798. married ... 1753, that early Protestant missionary Fr. Fabricius officiating. The Clives moved into what was known as `The Great House in Charles Street.' Built by an Armenian merchant around 1700, it was rented to Robert Clive by Aga Shawmier Sultan in 1752. When Clive left for Britain in 1754, the house was taken over by the Government for the sessions of the Courts of Admiralty and became known as Admiralty House in 1755. "The Hindu" Monday, Apr 26, 2004 He bought Walcot and the manor of Clun from John Walcot in 1763 for £92,000. (John Walcot of Walcot, b. 1697 Bitterly, d. c.1765; m. Mary Dashwood, dau. of Sir Francis Dashwood, Bart. John inherited Walcot when his father died in 1726. In 1727 he purchased the manor of Bishops Castle from his uncle, the Duke of Chandos, for L7,000, MP for Shropshire 1727-34. Under the influence of his brother-in-law, Sir Francis Dashwood, who was made Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1763, he ran up large debts improving his home and gardens and running for Parliament. Sir Francis Dashwood was a notorious rake and intimate friend of the Prince Regent. John left the running of his estates to his son, Charles, who sold the heavily indebted estate, including Walcot, land in the town of Bishops Castle, and the manor of Clun, to Lord Clive for L92,000 in 1763. ) During 1752 on his arrival back in England with his new wife Margaret, they lived in Queen Square, Ormond Street, London. They returned to India on April 5, 1755 embarking on the Stretham at Deal, Kent. He became known as "Clive of India" after leading British troops to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. They arrived back from India in Summer 1760 "in possession of the largest fortune acquured by an Englishman in 18th C India, he settled down to a life of conspicious affluence, renting a town house at No. 45 Berkeley Square, which he later purchased outright for £10,500. (45 Berkeley Sq., a Palladian building designed by Devall.) The universal biographical dictionary / Watkins, John. - New ed. - London. - 1821 General biography / Aikin, J.. - London. - 1799-1815 (10 vols) From the London Daily telegraph. End of era as army quits Red Fort By Rahul Bedi in New Delhi (Filed: 23/12/2003) The Indian army yesterday moved out of Delhi's sprawling Red Fort, ending a military association dating back to the storming of the city by vengeful British-led forces crushing the Indian Mutiny. The former symbol of Mughal and British power was handed over to the tourism ministry, which will now seek to have it declared a World Heritage Site. The 17th-century complex was built in sandstone and marble as the seat for the Mogul emperors. India's defence minister, George Fernandes, said: "Now it is time to show to the world an aspect of our history and heritage." Occupied by the British military after the Indian Mutiny of 1857, an event known to Indians as the First War of Independence, the fort was handed on to the Indian army in 1947 and garrisoned by at least one infantry battalion in the ungainly barracks built by the colonial administration. The army also reportedly used its premises as an interrogation centre, giving rise to many grisly tales. The complex was completed in 1638 by the Mogul emperor Shah Jehan at about the same time he began building the Taj Mahal in nearby Agra. The Red Fort is in the shape of an irregular octagon and stretches for about one and a quarter miles. It houses elaborate marble palaces, once inlaid with precious stones, intricately carved domes, mosques, hammams (royal baths) and elaborate gardens which the tourism ministry now wants to develop as part of its grand beautifying scheme to attract visitors. During the 1857 uprising, when it was home to the last Mogul emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, a puppet of the fast expanding British East India Company, it became the rallying point for thousands of Hindu and Muslim mutineers opposing foreign domination. The fort's fall hastened the end of the uprising. The Indian flag has been raised from the fort's ramparts every Aug 15 to celebrate independence from Britain. ============================== Clive of India's family sells off his Mughal treasures By Will Bennett, Art Sales Correspondent (Filed: 11/02/2004) Mughal treasures brought to Britain by Robert Clive, who conquered much of India, are to be sold by his descendants at Christie's where they are expected to fetch more than £1.1 million. The collection, which includes a rare 17th century jewelled jade flask that should sell for more than £1 million, was on display in British museums until recently when the family decided to sell it. The pieces were acquired by Clive of India, as he became known, after a series of campaigns culminating in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 which brought most of India under British control. The flask was once part of the collection at the imperial court in Delhi and was probably looted from the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah by Nadir Shah, a Persian king who invaded India in 1739. Quite how Clive acquired it is uncertain but it may have been booty after his victory over Siraj-ud Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, at Plassey. The new Nawab, Mir Jaffir, threw open the treasury and invited the British commander to take what he wanted. The collection also includes a hookah encrusted with sapphires which is expected to fetch £50,000 to £80,000, a decorated dagger which should sell for £35,000 to £50,000, a jade bowl and a flywhisk. Until recently the flask was on display at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London where it had been on loan since the early 1960s. The museum said yesterday that it is not planning to bid at the Christie's auction on April 27. The other pieces were on loan to the Clive Museum at Powis Castle at Welshpool in mid-Wales which was once the family home but is now owned by the National Trust. A National Trust spokesman said yesterday: "We were very grateful to have the items on loan for so long as part of the collection on display." He added that it was hoped that they would remain in Britain. Christie's declined to say why the family had decided to sell the pieces. Although the flask was the best item remaining in the collection, Clive's descendants still own some works of art acquired by him in India. ================================= Clive of India's treasures fetch £4m By Will Bennett Art Sales Correspondent (Filed: 28/04/2004) Rare Mughal treasures that were brought to Britain by Robert Clive, who conquered much of India, were sold for £4.7 million yesterday at an auction at Christie's in London. The collection, which was sold by Clive's descendants, fetched more than three times Christie's estimate as bidders competed fiercely for the historic 17th and 18th century works of art. The highest price was more than £2.9 million paid by an anonymous bidder for a 17th century jewelled flask which until recently was on display at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London. The flask was once part of the collection at the imperial court in Delhi and was probably looted from the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah by Nadir Shah, a Persian king who invaded India in 1739. It is uncertain how it was acquired by Clive of India, as he became known after a series of campaigns culminating in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 which brought most of the sub-continent under British control. It may have been booty after his victory over Siraj-ud Daulah, Nawab of Bengal, at Plassey. The new Nawab, Mir Jaffir, invited the British commander to take what he wanted from his treasury. A fly whisk made from banded agate and inset with rubies, which had been expected to sell for only £5,000 to £8,000, fetched 113 times its upper estimate when it was sold for £901,250. A dagger with a pistol-grip hilt inlaid with rubies, emeralds and diamonds, which had been estimated at £35,000 to £50,000, sold for £733,250, and a huqqa set decorated with sapphires was bought for £94,850. Most of the collection was on loan to the Clive Museum at Powis Castle at Welshpool in mid Wales, which was once the family home but is now owned by the National Trust. Clive's descendants still own some works of art acquired by him in India. Clive, born in 1725, went to work for the East India Company as a clerk when he was 18. He later accepted a commission in the company's army. When he returned from India to England in 1767 he faced a Parliamentary inquiry into corruption allegations. Although he was cleared, he committed suicide in 1774. ---------------- Document: Accounts of Clive's military activities in India Author: Anonymous and Robert Clive Title: Details: Beauchamp-Proctor MS Archive: NRO, Beauchamp-Proctor MS, BEA 419, 439 x 6 Date: 21 August 1757 Publisher: Unpublished Manuscript Contributor: Dr Andrew Hopper, 2001 Comments: Copy of an anonymous letter, describing the British victory at Cossimbagar, India, and Robert Clive's own account of the 'Grand Revolution'. Dear Sir Since my last to you our affairs have taken a most favourable turn the Nabob not / Complying with his Treaty of making us satisfaction Col. Clive formed a confederacy with / Jaffer Alley Cawn one of the Nabobs Generals and promised to place him in the / Government if he would join him agt. his Master, the Nabob had used Jaffer Alley / Cawn ill, and he readily accepted the terms[.] On the 23d. June a Battle was fought near / Cossimbagar, where Jaffer Alley Cawn & Roy Dulobb another of the Nabobs Generals in / our Interest stood neuter, and we obtained a compleat victory, took 50 pieces of Cann*on*, / and put the Nabobs to flight, he was taken the first *day* by an officer belonging to Jaffer / Alley Cawn but by the force of a bribe of £30000. Gold Rupees (60000) he obtained his / liberty *and was afterwards retaken near Patna and brought* to Maxadavad his former place of Residence, where his adherents began to / Mutiny, and he was Cutt off & Jaffer Alley Cawn seated in his place. At the settling the Confederacy Jaffer Alley Cawn promised that in case he was / placed in the Governmt. he would make satisfaction to the sufferers in the capture of / Calcutta by way of Donation Vizt. To the Company ____________________________ £1250, 000 To the European Inhabitants ___________________ 625-000 To the Moors and Gensoos ____________________ 250-000 To the Armenians ___________________________ 87-000 To the Military _____________________________ 312-000 To the Navy ________________________________ 312-000 Besides which a present to the Governour & his Select committee being 5 more of his Council} 212. 000 To 6 of the Councell out of the Committee each £12500 } 75000 The Nabob has also Granted our Company many £3124,500 Previledges in Trade he has given them the Liberty of a mint to Coin their money, and / a track of Land extending from Calcutta down the River upwards of 60 miles, and about / 15 or 20 Miles in Bredth, which if properly Cultivated & encouraged may yield them 30000 / £40000 a year, we have receid in Culcutta half the restitution money & a Jury of 13 is Inquiring into the particular losses. Our brave Commander in Chief Adm.l Watson dyed the 16.th Instant of a fever / after three days illness universally beloved & lamented, the town is in mourning for him / the squadron sail to Bombay in Sep.r & from thence directly home[war]d. Calcutta Aug. 21.st 1757 Dear Sir I am perswaded your good nature will excuse me for not writing to you so often as I ought or / not entering into a particular detail of the Grand Revolution affected in this part of the / world by the forces under my Command, my father will receive a journal of our / Military proceedings, and I have desired him to shew it to you and my other Relation[.] My letter of Attorney and the large remittances made from hence, / will inform you how advantageous this Expedition has been to me, / Indeed both Publick and Private are Inriched beyond what could have been / imagined, the whole sum giving by the new Prince amounts to three / millions sterling, one half of which is already received[.] I hope by the month of January every thing will be settled, / and that I shall be able to fulfill my Intentions of seting out for / England about that time, Mrs. Clive will sail from hence for that place / in six weeks, she takes her passage in the Tyger Capt. Latham, however / I believe I shall overtake her either at the Cape or St Helenas[.] Mr. George Clive will accompany me, with a fortune of 18 or *£*20,000 / < what has not poor Judiths father to answer for in not suffering his / Daughter to come to the Indies > Mrs. Clive joins with me in best wishes to Lady Clive, not forgeting / my Cousin Harry Charles and Sally Clive and I am Dear Sir Your affect. Cousin Robert Clive Calcutta Aug. 21st 1757 Clive's victory Plassey in 1757 enabled the East India Company established its rule over large areas of India. Clive here recounts some of the consequences in a speech to the House of Commons. : . . Indostan was always an absolute despotic government. The inhabitants, especially of Bengal, in inferior stations, are servile, mean, submissive, and humble. In superior stations, they are luxurious, effeminate, tyrannical, treacherous, venal, cruel. The country of Bengal is called, by way of distinction, the paradise of the earth. It not only abounds with the necessaries of life to such a degree, as to furnish a great part of India with its superfluity, but it abounds in very curious and valuable manufactures, sufficient not only for its own use, but for the use of the whole globe. The silver of the west and the gold of the east have for many years been pouring into that country, and goods only have been sent out in return. This has added to the luxury and extravagance of Bengal. From time immemorial it has been the custom of that country, for an inferior never to come into the presence of a superior without a present. It begins at the nabob, and ends at the lowest man that has an inferior. The nabob has told me, that the small presents he received amounted to 300,000 1. a year; and I can believe him; because I know that I might have received as much during my last government. The Company's servants have ever been accustomed to receive presents. Even before we took part in the country troubles, when our possessions were very confined and limited, the governor and others used to receive presents; and I will take upon me to assert, that there has not been an officer commanding his Majesty's fleet; nor an officer commanding his Majesty's army; not a governor, not a member of council, not any other person, civil or military, in such a station as to have connection with the country government, who has not received presents. With regard to Bengal, there they How in abundance indeed. Let the House figure to itself a country consisting of 15 millions of inhabitants, a revenue of four millions sterling, and a trade in proportion. By progressive steps the Company have become sovereigns of that empire. Can it be supposed that their servants will refrain from advantages so obviously resulting from their situation? The Company's servants, however, have not been the authors of those acts of violence and oppression, of which it is the fashion to accuse them. Such crimes are committed by the natives of the country acting as their agents and for the most part without their knowledge. Those agents, and the banyans,' never desist, till, according to the ministerial phrase, they have dragged their masters into the kennel; and then the acts of violence begin. The passion for gain is as strong as the passion of love ... Let us for a moment consider the nature of the education of a young man who goes to India. The advantages arising from the Company's service are now very generally known; and the great object of every man is to get his son appointed a writer to Bengal; which is usually at the age of 16. His parents and relations represent to him how certain he is of making a fortune; that my lord such a one, and my lord such a one, acquired so much money in such a time; and Mr. such a one, and Mr. such a one, so much in such a time. Thus are their principles corrupted at their very setting out, and as they generally go a good many together, they inflame one another's expectations to such a degree, in the course of the voyage, that they fix upon a period for their return before their arrival. Let us now take a view of one of these writers arrived in Bengal, and not worth a groat. As soon as he lands, a banyan, worth perhaps 100,000 1. desires he may have the honour of serving this young gentleman, at 4s. 6d. per month. The Company has provided chambers for him, but they are not good enough;-the banyan finds better. The young man takes a walk about the town, he observes that other writers, arrived only a year before him, live in splendid apartments or have houses of their own, ride upon fine prancing Arabian horses, and in palanqueens and chaises; that they keep seraglios, make entertainments, and treat with champaigne and claret. When he returns he tells the banyan what he has observed. The banyan assures him he may soon arrive at the same good fortune; he furnishes him with money; he is then at his mercy. The advantages of the banyan advance with the rank of his master, who in acquiring one fortune generally spends three. But this is not the worst of it: he is in a state of dependence under the banyan, who commits acts of violence and oppression, as his interest prompts him to, under the pretended sanction and authority of the Company's servant. Hence, Sir, arises the clamour against the English gentlemen in India. But look at them in a retired situation, when returned to England, when they are no longer nabobs and sovereigns of the east: see if there be any thing tyrannical in their disposition towards their inferiors: see if they are not good and humane masters: Are they not charitable? Are they not benevolent? Are they not generous? Are they not hospitable? If they are, thus far, not contemptible members of society, and if in all their dealings between man and man, their conduct is strictly honourable: if, in short, there has not yet been one character found amongst them sufficiently flagitious for Mr. Foote to exhibit on the theatre in the Haymarket, may we not conclude, that if they have erred, it has been because they were men, placed in situations subject to little or no control? Source: From D. B. Horn and Mary Ransome, eds., English Historical Documents, 17141783 (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1957), pp. 809-811.

Born: Styche, Staffs., England, 29th Sep 1725 Baptised: Moreton Say, Shropshire, , England 2nd Oct 1725
Died: , , , England 22nd Nov 1774 Buried: St Margaret, Moreton Say, Shropshire, , England 1774
Family:
Clive

Titles:

Ancestors
[ Patrilineage | Matrilineage | Earliest Ancestors | Force | Force2 | Options ]

1.
Robert 
Clive
(
Maskelyne
) 1725 - 1774
2.
Richard 
Clive
(
Gaskell
) 1694 - 1771
4.
Robert 
Clive
(
Amphlett
) * 1661
5.
Elizabeth 
Amphlett
(
Clive
) * c. 1655
3.
Rebecca 
Gaskell
(
Clive
) c. 1694 - post 1770
6.
Nathaniel 
Gaskell
(
Wilson
) 1653 - 1716
7.
Sarah 
Wilson
(
Gaskell
) + 1709

Siblings


1.
Nathaniel 
Clive
* 1729
2.
Rebecca 
Clive
(
Clive
) 1730 - 1825
3.
Sarah 
Clive
(
Markham
) 1732 - 1828
4.
Judith 
Clive
(
Wolley
) 1733 - post 1757
5.
Frances 
Clive
(
Wilson
) 1734 - 1798
6.
Richard 
Clive
1736 - ante 1741
7.
George 
Clive
* 1738
8.
Anne (Nanny) 
Clive
(
Sempill
) 1740 - post 1766
9.
Richard 
Clive
1741 - post 1757
10.
Elizabeth 
Clive
* 1742
11.
William 
Clive
(
Rotton
) 1745 - 1825

Spouses



1. St. Mary's Church, Fort St George, , Madras, India 15th Mar 1753
Margaret 
Maskelyne
(
Clive
) 1735 - 1817

Descendants
[ Options ]

a.
Margaret 
Maskelyne
(
Clive
) 1735 - 1817
1.
Edward (Ned) 
Clive
(
Herbert
) 1754 - 1839
1a.
Henrietta Antonia 
Herbert
(
Clive
) 1758 - 1830
1.1.
Edward 
Herbert
  formerly Clive
(
Graham
) 1785 - 1848 ...
1.2.
Henrietta Antonia 
Clive
(
Williams Wynn
) 1786 - 1835 ...
1.3.
Robert Henry 
Windsor Clive
  formerly Herbert
(
Windsor
) 1789 - 1854 ...
1.4.
Charlotte Florentia 
Clive
(
Percy
) 1789 - 1866 ...
2.
Richard 
Clive
1755 - 1755
3.
Jane (Jenny) 
Clive
1756 - c. 1759
4.
Robert (Bob) 
Clive
1759 - c. 1760
5.
Rebecca (Becky) 
Clive
(
Robinson
) 1760 - 1795
5a.
Lt.Gen. John 
Robinson
(
Clive
) ante 1764 - 1819
5.1.
Charlotte 
Robinson
(
Eliot
) ante 1791 - 1813
6.
Charlotte 
Clive
1762 - 1795
7.
Margaret/Margaretta 
Clive
(
Walpole
) 1763 - 1814
7a.
Lt.Col. Lambert Theodore 
Walpole
(
Clive
) 1757 - 1798
7.1.
Frances Margaretta 
Walpole
1788 - post 1810
7.2.
Charlotte Louisa 
Walpole
1790 - post 1810
8.
Elizabeth 
Clive
1764 - 1765
9.
Lt.Col. Robert 
Clive
1769 - 1833
Sources

  • Family Archivists: see
    Clive


Timeline


29th Sep 1725Born Styche, Staffs., England
2nd Oct 1725Baptised Moreton Say, Shropshire, England
15th Mar 1753Married
Margaret 
Maskelyne
(
Clive
) 1735 - 1817 Fort St George, Madras, India
15th Mar 1762
Robert 
Clive
(
Maskelyne
) 1725 - 1774 inherited the title
Clive
  [B] of Plassey
24th Nov 1773Made a will (will)
1774Buried Moreton Say, Shropshire, England
22nd Nov 1774Died England
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